Schools are to be given an extra £1m by the Scottish government to buy musical instruments for pupils.
Ministers will also set up a working group to look at music tuition fees, which can vary across councils.
Among issues it will examine is the question of charges for pupils sitting SQA music exams.
The EIS teaching union, which has been campaigning for "fair access" to music education for pupils in all parts of Scotland, welcomed the announcements.
Minister for Learning Alasdair Allan said every child should have the opportunity to learn an instrument.
"Currently, there are too many children being put off taking up music because of the cost of the instrument," he said.
Mr Allan said the new Instrumental Music Group would look at how music tuition is delivered.